Volume 21 (2024)
Volume 20 (2023)
Volume 19 (2022)
Volume 18 (2021)
Volume 17 (2020)
Volume 16 (2019)
Volume 15 (2018)
Volume 14 (2017)
Volume 13 (2016)
Volume 12 (2015)
Volume 11 (2014)
Volume 10 (2013)
Volume 9 (2012)
Volume 8 (2011)
Volume 7 (2010)
Volume 6 (2009)
Volume 5 (2008)
Volume 4 (2007)
Volume 3 (2006)
Volume 2 (2005)
Volume 1 (2004)
The Protective Role of IL-17 and IL-22 in COVID-19 Infection

Sengul Aksakal; Selim Gorgun

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 01 June 2024


  Background: The development of a cytokine storm in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection can make the disease fatal. We hypothesize that this excessive cytokine production impairs mucosal healing. IL-17 and IL-22 are cytokines that play a key role in protecting and regenerating mucosal tissues.IL-17 ...  Read More

Letter to the Editor Regarding “Comparative Immunogenicity and Neutralization Potency of Four Approved COVID-19 Vaccines in BALB/c Mice”

Hineptch Daungsupawong; Viroj Wiwanitkit

Volume 21, Issue 2 , June 2024, , Pages 184-185


  Dear EditorWe are writing to discuss the article titled “Comparative Immunogenicity and Neutralization Potency of Four Approved COVID-19 Vaccines in BALB/c Mice” (1). The study examined the immunogenicity and neutralization efficacy of four COVID-19 vaccines licensed in Iran in BALB/c mice. ...  Read More

Comparative Immunogenicity and Neutralization Potency of Four Approved COVID-19 Vaccines in BALB/c Mice

Navid Dashti; Forough Golsaz-Shirazi; Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani; Amir-Hassan Zarnani; Mohammad Mehdi Amiri; Fazel Shokri

Volume 21, Issue 1 , March 2024, , Pages 1-14


  Background: Since the outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), several vaccine candidates have been developed within a short period of time. Although the potency of these vaccines was evaluated individually, their comparative potency was not comprehensively ...  Read More

Behaviors of Human T cells in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Lessons and Tips

Ali Shams; Sahar Khosravi; Aysan Zareiye; Yeganeh Lalehzari; Reyhane Nematollahi; Solmaz Basti

Volume 20, Issue 4 , December 2023, , Pages 382-399


  Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is crucial in controlling the highly aggressive and progressive SARS-CoV-2 infection. Despite extensive researches on severe COVID-19 infection, the etiology and/or mechanisms of lymphopenia, decreased T cell-mediated responses in patients, cytokine release storms (CRS), ...  Read More

Elevated HSP70 and HSP90 as Predictive Markers of Immune Activation and Lung Injury in SARS-COV-2 Disease

Zivar Zangeneh; Gholamreza Khamisipour

Volume 20, Issue 3 , September 2023, , Pages 368-373


  Background: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, especially inflammatory responses due to immune cell activation. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was one of the most important causes of death in the recent pandemic. Increased cellular ...  Read More

Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 Specific Antibodies in Recovered Patients by Different ELISA Kits

Alireza Fereidouni; Hamidreza Safari; Hadis Rezapoor; Sara Mahmoudzadeh; Mohammad Fereidouni

Volume 20, Issue 3 , September 2023, , Pages 374-381


  Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China. As long as the 27th of December 2021, approximately 280 million people have been infected with coronavirus, resulting in more than 5,418,421 deaths worldwide. Since the beginning ...  Read More

Effect of the Previous History of the SARS-CoV-2 Infections on Antibody Levels among Sputnik V Vaccinated Healthcare Workers

Atieh Yaghoubi; Samira Asli; Maryam Parhizkar; Maryam Mohammadpour; Ali Khorsand; Mehdi Yousefi; Taravat Bamdad; Saeid Amel Jamehdar

Volume 20, Issue 1 , March 2023, , Pages 76-82


  Background: Measuring the level of antibodies produced post-vaccination in response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is considered a strategy for estimating the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccines.Objective: To examine the antibody levels among the healthcare workers in different hospitals in Mashhad, ...  Read More

The Chemokine MIG is Associated with an Increased Risk of COVID-19 Mortality in Mexican Patients

Luis Antonio Ochoa-Ramirez; Rosalio Ramos-Payan; German Reynaldo Jimenez-Gastelum; Jose Rodriguez-Millan; Maribel Aguilar-Medina; Juan Jose Rios-Tostado; Alfredo Ayala-Ham; Mercedez Bermudez; Juan Fidel Osuna-Ramos; Vicente Olimon-Andalon; Jesús Salvador Velarde-Félix

Volume 19, Issue 3 , September 2022, , Pages 311-320


  Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emergent viral disease in which the host inflammatory response modulates the clinical outcome. Severe outcomes are associated with an exacerbation of inflammation in which chemokines play an important role as the attractants of immune cells to the ...  Read More

Comparison of the Antibody Responses Following Vaccination with AstraZeneca and Sinopharm

Enayat Anvari; Atefe Ghamar Talepoor; Mahsa Eshkevar Vakili; Narges Karimi; MohammadReza Ataollahi; Gelareh Najafi; Dieter Kabelitz; Iraj Ahmadi; Kurosh Kalantar

Volume 19, Issue 3 , September 2022, , Pages 321-329


  Background: Vaccines are the most effective way to prevent Coronavirus 2 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2).Objectives: To compare the antibody response of healthy individuals vaccinated with either the AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) or the Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV) vaccine, in those ...  Read More

Labor Could Increase Systemic Inflammation and Cause or Deteriorate Cytokine Storm in COVID-19

Amir Hossein Norooznezhad; Alireza A Shamshirsaz; Sedigheh Hantoushzadeh

Volume 19, Issue 3 , September 2022, , Pages 330-336


  Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality compared with the general population. Possible pathways are: I) in patients with COVID-19, cytokine storm defined as the excess release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), ...  Read More

Case Report of China/Tianjin's First Novel Coronavirus Variant Omicron

Haibai Sun; Hongjie Li; Shuping Huang; Lixia Shi; Zhiyan Xing; Jun Shen

Volume 19, Issue 1 , March 2022, , Pages 115-120


  COVID-19 is a new acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a novel Coronavirus (2019-COV-2) infection. On November 26, 2021, the World Health Organization announced a new 2019-COV-2 variant strain Omicron (B.1.1.529). Omicron's emergence added further uncertainty to the outbreak. Here we report ...  Read More

More Evidence of the Link of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 with Critical COVID-19: A Report in Mexican Patients

German Reynaldo Jiménez-Gastélum; Arely Monserrant Espinoza-Ortega; Rosalío Ramos-Payán; Maribel Aguilar-Medina; Jorge López-Gutiérrez; Carlos Villegas-Mercado; Luis Antonio Ochoa-Ramirez; Horacio Rendón-Aguilar; Juan Fidel Osuna-Ramos; Juan José Ríos-Tostado; Jesús Salvador Velarde-Félix

Volume 18, Issue 4 , December 2021, , Pages 331-337


  Background: According to the World Health Organization, Mexico presents one of the highest mortality rates due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The "cytokine storm" phenomenon has been proposed as a pathological hallmark of severe COVID-19. Objective: To determine the association of serum cytokine ...  Read More

The role and delicate balance of Host Immunity in Coronavirus Disease-19

Ashish Kumar Vyas; Vishwanath Varma; Garima Garg; Priyal Gupta; Nirupma Trehanpati

Volume 18, Issue 1 , March 2021, , Pages 1-12


  Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) associated with SARS-CoV-2, causes a severe form of the respiratory illness known as Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19). COVID-19 has emerged as a worldwide pandemic with a high number of fatalities. Approximately 112,654,202 people have been infected so far with ...  Read More

Serological and Molecular Tests for COVID-19: a recent update

Amir Hossein Mansourabadi; Mona Sadeghalvad; Hamid-Reza Mohammadimotlagh; Aliakbar Amirzargar

Volume 18, Issue 1 , March 2021, , Pages 13-33


  The COVID-19 pandemic is probably the most devastating worldwide challenge in recent century. COVID-19 leads to a mild to severe respiratory disease and affects different organs and has become a global concern since December 2019. Meanwhile, molecular biology and diagnostic laboratories played an essential ...  Read More

Cytokine profiling in Iranian patients with COVID-19; association with clinical severity

Saeid Taghiloo; Mohsen Soltanshahi; Masoud Aliyali; Siavash Abedi; Hossein Mehravaran; Abolghasem Ajami; Hossein Asgarian-Omran

Volume 18, Issue 1 , March 2021, , Pages 54-64


  Background: SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is recognized for the first time in Wuhan, China. The cytokine storm is a known factor causing major clinical symptoms leading to death in COVID-19 patients. Objective: To investigate and compare the serum levels of ...  Read More

Prevalence of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Specific Antibodies in Health-Care Workers Compared to General Population during an Early Phase of the Pandemic, Tehran-Iran

Sahar Mortezagholi; Davood Rostamzadeh; Maedeh Alinejad; Vahid Younesi; Payam Tabarsi; Mahdi Shabani

Volume 18, Issue 1 , March 2021, , Pages 82-92


  Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly transmits in general population, mainly between health-care workers (HCWs) who are in close contact with patients. Objective: To study the seropositivity of HCWs as a high-risk group compared to general population. Methods: ...  Read More