1Department of Immunology, University of Health Sciences
2Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore
3Department of Biochemistry, Sahiwal Medical College, Sahiwal
4Amin Hayat Memorial Diabetic Centre, Lahore
5Departments of Pathology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a health concern which leads to complications such as retinopathy. Pakistan has 6.9 million people living with DM and this toll will be doubled by 2025. Objective: To determine serum IL-6 and IL-17 of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with retinopathy. Methods: In this cross-sectional casecontrol study, 212 subjects enrolled which were categorized into 3 groups. Group-I included 30 subjects without diabetes, group-II consisted of 30 subjects with T2DM without retinopathy and group-III consisted of 152 subjects with T2DM and retinopathy. Serum IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA. Data was analysed using SPSS 17.0 and one way ANOVA to observe group mean differences. Results: Longer mean duration of disease was detected in group-III than group-II (p=0.007). Highest IL-6 level was detected in group-II and highest IL-17 level was detected in group-I. For IL-6, significant differences were detected among groups in total, between Group-I and Group-III and between Group-II and Group-III (p<0.0001 each). Regarding IL-17, significant differences were found among groups in total (p=0.002) and between Group-I and Group-III (p=0.001). No significant difference in the percentages of HbA1c observed between groups. Conclusions: Age, gender and duration of diabetes contribute to T2DM retinopathy. Serum IL-6 and IL-17 were inversely associated with T2DM retinopathy.