Background: Immune reactions have been reported to be involved in the destruction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma.
Objective: To investigate the role of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A and B (MICA and MICB) molecules in the pathogenesis of glaucoma.
Methods: Aqueous humor and serum samples from 15 glaucoma patients and 45 patients with cataract, undergoing ocular surgery, were obtained. The concentrations of MICA and MICB molecules in all samples were measured using ELISA.
Results: Both MICA and MICB concentrations were higher in the aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma compared to those with cataract (p=0.013 and p=0.004, respectively); however, in the serum samples, no significant differences were observed.
Conclusions: Increased intraocular pressure may be associated with increased expression of the MICA and MICB molecules, which could initiate the destruction of RGCs and consequent development of glaucoma.