The Role of Immune System in Idiopathic Anterior Uveitis

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Ophthalmology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Background: Idiopathic anterior uveitis is an anterior segment inflammation in which a detailed medical history, general and ocular physical examination is not associated with any defined clinical syndrome. Alterations in immune system parameters have been reported in patients with idiopathic posterior uveitis; however no data on the role of immune system in idiopathic anterior uveitis has yet been reported. In this study the immune system function in patients with idiopathic anterior uveitis was evaluated.
Objective: To evaluate the immune system function in patients with idiopathic non-infectious anterior uveitis.
Methods: 51 patients with anterior uveitis, 32 women (62.7%) and 19 men (37.3%), participated in this study. Intensity of intraocular inflammation was scored according to standard uveitis grading system. In all cases, serum levels of immunoglobulins A, G, M and E, C3 and C4 complement components, and autoantibodies against ds-DNA and ACLA, were measured using ELISA method.
Results: 49 patients out of 51 (96%) showed altered serum levels of immunological parameters, compared with normal values. Changes in serum immunoglobulin concentration were present in 44 patients, with increased IgA levels being the most common. Serum values of C3 and C4 complement proteins were also increased in 29 subjects. ds-DNA autoantibody was positive in 15 and equivocal in 19 cases. ACLA was positive and equivocal in 3 and 9 patients, respectively.
Conclusion: Immune abnormalities found in serum of 49 patients with idiopathic anterior uveitis may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

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