Document Type: Review Article
Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Gene association studies are less appealing in cancer compared to autoimmune diseases. Complexity, heterogeneity, variation in histological types, age at onset, short survival, and acute versus chronic conditions are cancer related factors which are different from an organ specific autoimmune disease, such as Grave’s disease, on which a large body of multicentre data is accumulated. For years the focus of attention was on diversity and polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex in respect to human diseases specially the autoimmune diseases, but in recent years, access to other human gene sequences prompted investigators to focus on genes encoding the immune regulatory proteins such as the co-stimulatory, adhesion molecules, cytokines and chemokines and their receptors. Among them, CTLA4 (CD152) has been in the centre of attention for its pivotal role in autoimmunity and cancer. Although not fully understood, CTLA4 with no doubt plays an important role in the maintenance of the immune response by its expression on activated and regulatory T cells. CTLA4 (Gene ID:1493, MIM number:123890) has many variants and polymorphic forms, some present in regulatory positions, some in 3' UTR and the most important one in the leader sequence (+49 A/G). As a pivotal regulatory element of the immune responses magnitude, CTLA4 could be considered as a two-blade knife, for which only the optimal expression ensures an effective, but at the same time, safe immune response. It can accordingly be speculated that CTLA4 alleles associated with extraordinary expression could make a person more susceptible to tumor growth and/or progression. On the other hand, alleles associated with a compromised CTLA4 expression/function may accelerate the formation and/or manifestation of inflammatory autoimmune disorder. I hypothesized a spectrum of the functional dichotomy of CTLA4 SNPs diverging from autoimmunity to cancer. To examine these hypotheses, results from previously published investigations on CTLA4 polymorphisms together with the work done by our own group are discussed in details. Because the most published data are about the polymorphism at position +49, I concentrated on this position; however the data regarding other SNPs are also included for comparison. To support the significance of CTLA4 gene variation in these two major human diseases evidences from organ transplantation are also included. As will be discussed in the manuscript, our work and reports by others from a normal population perspective support the hypothesis that individuals inheriting a GG genotype at position +49, for which lower CTLA4 expression has been extensively suggested, are more susceptible for developing autoimmune disorders and those with AA genotype, with an existence of a state of self-tolerance, may have a higher chance of developing cancer. CTLA4 SNPs may accordingly be considered as a crucial element, along with other known or yet unknown mechanisms, in keeping the immune balance in predisposed individuals to cancer and autoimmunity. Although an spectrum line can be drawn between autoimmunity and cancer by considering published data regarding CTLA4 +49 polymorphism, the extreme functional dichotomy of this SNP appears to be more complex and difficult to understand, but there is no doubt that the future investigations will resolve most ambiguities.