Background: T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin of type A trichothecenes produced by several fungal genera such as Fusarium species. Mycotoxins can affect both cell mediated and humoral immune compartments.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investi-gate the effect of T-2 toxin on cytokine production by mouse peritoneal macrophages and lymph node T cells.
Methods: Mouse peritoneal macrophages and lymph node T cells were isolated and treated with different concentrations of T-2 toxin and incubated at 370C and 5% CO2 in air for 48 hours. Cell free media were removed and used for cy-tokine assay by an ELISA method.
Results: T-2 toxin significantly reduced IL-1β re-lease in a concentration dependent manner (p<0.005, p<0.001). Interleukin-12 and TNF-α production were significantly increased in response to 0.001ng/ml, 0.01ng/ml and 0.1ng/ml of T-2 toxin (p<0.001). However, T-2 toxin at higher concentrations rang-ing from 1ng/ml to 100ng/ml, reduced both IL-12 (p<0.001) and TNF-α production (p<0.005, p<0.05). The effects of T-2 toxin on lymph node T cells showed that IL-4 and IL-10 release was decreased in a concentration dependent manner (all with p<0.01). T-2 toxin at concentrations between 1ng/ml and 100ng/ml reduced the release of both IL-2 and IFN-γ (p<0.05, p<0.001).
Conclusion: The results suggest that T-2 toxin at low concentrations can highly induce secretion of IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 and it may be used as a positive immunomodulator in the human model.