Clinical neurology has been traditionally considered as an academic speciality in which the specialist regurgitates his/her knowledge of neurology without being able to do much for the patient. This attitude is no longer acceptable. Surge of information and discoveries in neurosciences within the last two decades translated into therapeutic interventions which is literally life saving in some occasions. Neuroimmunology, without a doubt, has been in the forefront of such discoveries. Just a few decades ago immunology of the nervous system was of little interest because brain was thought to be an immunologically “privileged” organ i.e. inaccessible to cellular and humeral immunity. Today, however, clinical neurologists deal with neurological problem with immunological basis on a daily basis. This article tries to review such diseases and their current therapeutic strategy proceeded by an introduction to CNS immunity. Multiple sclerosis, as one of the most common CNS disease with immunological basis, has been given more attention because of the growing number of affected people in Iran.