Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Periodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, India

2 Department of Human Genetics, College of Biomedical Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

3 Department of Medical Genetics, Sickle Cell Institute Chhattisgarh, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, Iran

4 Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences University, Tami Nadu, India


Background: Cytokines are suggested to play a role in periodontitis. Objective: To determine and compare the levels of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples amongst healthy individuals and  those with chronic periodontitis. Further to compare the GCF cytokine levels in three genotype classes defined by the respective gene polymorphisms. Methods: The study was conducted on 41 chronic periodontitis patients and 40 healthy volunteers. IL-1β and TNF-α were quantified in GCF by cytometric bead array. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and genotyping of IL1B +3954C/T (rs1143634) IL1B -511G/A (rs16944), TNFA -1031T/C (rs1799964) and TNFA -863C/A (rs1800630) polymorphisms were performed using Sanger sequencing and Taqman SNP genotyping assays methods. Results: Both IL-1β and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis group compared to the controls. IL-1β and TNF-α levels did not significantly differ in genotype classes of the respective polymorphism (IL1B -511G/A, TNFA -1031T/C and TNFA -863C/A). However, individuals with CT genotype of IL1B +3954C/T showed higher levels of IL-1β in the gingival crevicular fluid (ANOVA p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study revealed the presence of higher levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in subjects with periodontitis and genetic control of IL-1β levels in our samples of Indians.