Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, India

2 Animal Behaviour and Cognition Programme, School of Natural Sciences and Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Campus, Bangalore, India

3 Departments of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Institute of Liver & Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India


Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) associated with SARS-CoV-2, causes a severe form of the respiratory illness known as Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19). COVID-19 has emerged as a worldwide pandemic with a high number of fatalities. Approximately 112,654,202 people have been infected so far with this disease which has led to the death of more than one point seven million (2,496,749) till 24th Feb, 2021. Measures to counter this disease have led to a global economic slowdown. Multiple drug trials are ongoing and several putative candidates for vaccination against the virus have been approved and are in the pipeline. Many studies have also characterized the immunological profile of patients infected with COVID-19. Some studies suggest that the severity of the COVID-19 infection is directly associated with the cytokine storm. In this review, we aim to compile the available knowledge and describe the nature of immune responses in patients infected with COVID-19 in different age groups, comorbidity, and immune-compromised state and their association with disease severity.