Document Type : Original Article


Malaria and Vector Research Group, Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.


Background: One of the main challenges in protein-based vaccines is the poor immunogenicity of antigens, which can be solved by the use of adjuvants. Advax is a novel microparticle polysaccharide adjuvant that in combination with antigens can induce both cellular and humoral immunity based on the intrinsic features of the antigen. It has been shown that poly(I:C) can be a suitable adjuvant for the PfMSP-142-based malaria vaccine. Advax is a suitable co-adjuvant for poly(I:C) to increase its half-life and reduce dose-dependent toxicity. Objectives: To investigate whether advax alone or advax /poly(I:C) combination can enhance the immunogenicity with increased parasite inhibitory anti-PfMSP-142 antibodies in comparison to poly(I:C). Methods: Mice groups were inoculated with rPfMSP-142 alone or formulated in poly(I:C), poly(I:C)/advax, or advax. Then, humoral and cellular immune responses, the ratio of Th1/Th2 and growth inhibitory activity of induced antibodies were analyzed. Results: Poly(I:C)/advax formulated PfMSP-142 induced higher levels of anti-PfMSP-142 IgG, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies relative to poly(I:C)-formulated PfMSP-142. The maximum ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 (50.13) and gG2a/IgG1 (2.65), was induced in mice received advax-formulated PfMSP-142. Besides, poly(I:C)/advax formulated PfMSP-142 induced a higher ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 (25.33) and IgG2a/IgG1 (1.89) when compared withpoly(I:C) alone. Strong growth inhibitory activity was observed inantibodies induced in mice receivedpoly(I:C)/advax-formulated PfMSP-142. Conclusion: These findings indicate that advax is a favorable adjuvant to be combined with poly(I:C), and this combination of adjuvants could induce Th1 immune responses and growthinhibitory antibodies against rPfMSP-142.