Background: Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory efficacy against ulcerative colitis (UC), however, the mechanism is yet little understood. Objective: To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D against the UC, and to explore the potential downstream mechanisms. Materials and methods: Serum vitamin D, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and Interleukin (IL)-17 levels of the patients with UC were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) levels were determined by using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from healthy control subjects, stimulated with CD4+ T lymphocytes or helper T cells 17(Th17) differentiation conditions, and then exposed to calcitriol (vitamin D active form) or certain lentiviral treatment, followed by subsequent molecular level testing. For in vivo assay, mice were given 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis. Results: Compared with the control group, vitamin D levels in the UCs were statistically lower, and there was a negative correlation between IL-17 and vitamin D in the UCs. The lncRNA OIP5-AS1 could decrease under calcitriol treatment in both CD4+ T cells and Th17 differentiation. The lncRNA OIP5-AS1 was a microRNA (miR)-26a-5p sponge and therefore modulated the Th17 cells and IL-6 expression. The lncRNA OIP5-AS1/miR-26a-5p/IL-6 axis mediated the regulation of calcitriol-induced Th17 differentiation. Calcitriol had therapeutic effects on the UC mouse models by regulating the lncRNA OIP5-AS1 related pathway. Conclusion: Vitamin D might have anti-inflammatory potential in the treatment of the UC.