1Institute of Immunization and Prevention, Zhejiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention
2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Zhejiang University School of Public Health
3Institute of Immunization and Prevention, Xihu District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China
Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is recommended for newborn infants worldwide to prevent tuberculosis. However, complications do occur inevitably in a very low rate, among which the most serious is disseminated disease. The disseminated bacillus Calmette–Guérin disease is a rare disease with high fatality, and can be seen among persons with an underlying immunodeficiency. Case presentation: We report a 4-month-old male infant presenting with recurrent fever, an isolated left axillary massand swelling at the site of BCG inoculation. The cellular immune function analysis showed that the value of CD4/CD8 was 0.994, indicating the existence of immunodeficiency.The results of blood culture and throat swab culture showed conditional pathogen infection. He died of cardiopulmonary failure. Conclusion: In this case, necropsy played a significant role in the final diagnosis of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis.