Document Type : Review Article


1 Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, PR China.

2 Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animals Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

3 Department of Zoology, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan.

4 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animals Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

5 Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

6 Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sargodha, Pakistan.

7 Department of Zoology, University of Okara, Pakistan.

8 Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Pakistan.

9 Department of Zoology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.


The most effective method to minimize the prevalence of infectious diseases is vaccination. Vaccines enhance immunity and provide protection against different kinds of infections. Subunit vaccines are safe and less toxic, but due to their lower immunogenicity, they need adjuvants to boost the immune system. Adjuvants are small particles/molecules integrated into a vaccine to enhance the immunogenic feedback of antigens. They play a significant role to enhance the potency and efficiency of vaccines. There are several types of adjuvants with different mechanisms of action; therefore, improved knowledge of their immunogenicity will help develop a new generation of adjuvants. Many trials have been designed using different kinds of vaccine adjuvants to examine their safety and efficacy, but in practice, only a few have entered in animal and human clinical trials. However, for the development of safe and effective vaccines, it is important to have adequate knowledge of the side effects and toxicity of different adjuvants. The current review discussed the adjuvants which are available for producing modern vaccines as well as some new classes of adjuvants in clinical trials.